The doughnut economy framework was first introduced by the economist Kate Raworth in 2012. The model integrates questions of social equity into the debate about planetary boundaries in order to reach not only an environmentally safe place for society and the planet but also a socially just one for humanity. In this framework, the social foundation protects against critical human deprivations such as hunger, poverty, illiteracy, voicelessness while the environmental ceiling avoids critical natural impacts. In between and in the shape of a doughnut lies the safe and just operating space for humanity.
The environmental ceiling is represented by the nine planetary boundaries we talk about in this post.
Note: the last analysis of the doughnut was carried out in 2017 and that chemical pollution and freshwater withdrawals boundaries are now passed. The social foundation builds on the thought that Human Rights should be met for every human being. However, current data shows that none of these priorities are being met for the entire humanity and inequalities of deprivation still exist.